Surfing the 3D printing wave the changing face of surfboard fin production

To grab a ride, surfers rely heavily on just two items: the waves, and their own board.

Surfers can dictate surfboards which are customized for their requirements or pick from an assortment of pre-made planks, with minimal difference in price. If it has to do with surfboard fins, nevertheless, it is another story.

Fins are aerodynamic foils that behave like rudders while browsing, usually connected to the back base of the surfboard. Fins were eternally glassed to the plank, but nowadays nearly all boards have a removable fin system.

Producers of removable fin systems create exceptional products, however, the present production process involves injection molding, which is quite expensive. This pushes it out of financial advantage for the majority of surfers searching to get a customized fit.

We’ve developed, designed and 3D printed surfboard fins manufactured from composite materials, and also have built and trialed model fins with flexibility comparable to those available in stores.

3D printed browsing fins

3D printing (or additive production) refers to an assortment of production technologies employing computer-aided layout and layer-by-layer, time-management structure.

Bypassing the demand for traditional technologies — like milling, turning or molding — it is ideal for quick prototyping and manufacture of products that are personalized. 3D printing is excellent for building surfing fins. Check out 3d printing information here.

Though utilizing 3D printing to earn fins is comparatively new, there are numerous examples which can be found online.

The marketplace for fins

Fins never utilized to be more disposable, not for many recreational surfers. Nowadays, however, virtually every surfboard (either custom made or purchased from a store) is sold with no springs. The fins have become a distinct commodity that consumers add to their surfboard. Many surfers use various fins on precisely the exact same plank depending upon the tide conditions, for example, stiffer fins to get bigger waves.

The surf retail landscape has shifted so. Shops have sprung up which are now completely dedicated to only selling fins.

Fin costs vary depending on the sort of surfboard.

Surfers needing the choice of surfing their plank in thruster or quad (four fins) configurations may cover up to AU$270 to get a free set of five yards.

Information on fin earnings isn’t easy to discover, however, the yearly earnings for the whole browsing sector is estimated at US$ 7.3 billion. And since the amount of Australians that browse is 750,000, the Australian marketplace for fins is approximately A$75 million annually (depending on the conservative assumption that each year every Australian surfer buys a minimum of one pair of fins, values A$100).

Mass generated fins use some type of molding procedure that entails injecting resin in conjunction with materials such as fiberglass.

Alternatives include having a honeycomb or hexagonal core that’s integrated from the molding procedure. Commercial fins are often composite materials.

On the other hand, the crucial thing is to utilize materials offering the compulsory material attributes, such as flexibility or endurance. We’ve discovered that composite or blended substances have to generate 3D printed fins using similar bend properties to that present in industrial fins.

Fins in surfboards enable users to restrain the direction their surfboard travels.

The physics of the takes some time to describe, but it basically comes down to this: Consumers try to find a surfboard and fin mix that makes it possible for them to execute maneuvers using pace, flow or power depending on their ability level.

3D printing enables a surfer to tailor-make a fin suited for their specific style of browsing. The same as paying for a pair of golf clubs fitted to a size and ability level, 3D printing allows the matching of fins for your surfboard, height, weight, skill, and fashion.

Additionally, consumers are thinking increasingly more concerning sustainable alternatives for the surfing business. 3D printers can quickly incorporate recycled stuff to publish fresh fins.

You will find surfers who prefer to purchase ready-made planks and people who purchase custom boards out of shapers.

3D printed hooks are for all those surfers who prefer to control all elements of their browsing gear and will suit individuals who believe it’s necessary to get fins made for their specification.

3D printed fins also provide benefits for creating personalized fins for browse flexible and therapy (handicapped) surfer applications, depending upon the requirements of their surfer. Personalised fins allow for superior stability, steering, and control thereby boosting the surfing experience.

3D printing might even alter surfboard construction. Although the majority of us will not attain the towering heights of Australia’s winner professional artisans, there might soon be a day when each surfer will have the ability to insert custom created 3D printed hooks into a plank and take to the waves.

Articles Source: https://theconversation.com/surfing-the-3d-printing-wave-the-changing-face-of-surfboard-fin-production-79107

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DDR4 Memory Prices Why So High and When Will They Fall

The previous twelve months turned out to become some of the most exciting times we could recall for constructing a new pc. But for as much as there was enthused about seeing pc hardware in 2017, there were lots to be mad about also.

Regrettably, a number of those problems are becoming worse and will likely continue to worsen during 2018, which will make it increasingly tough to construct a PC. Part one of the series is going to be committed talk DDR4 memory pricing and why it is so significant.

RAM pricing is now a huge issue plaguing those needing to construct a brand new computer or perhaps upgrade an older one. For more pc issues check out this website.

A year after you might expect to pay a bit over $70 for the exact same item. Now you are taking a look at an asking price of $90, or 170 percent greater than what we had been spending approximately 18 months ago.

But is this? First of all, it is a problem of demand and supply. And while it is hard to predict precisely when distribution will enhance, most reports indicate that this will not happen until late 2018 when production of 64-layer and 96-layer 3D NAND flash reaches adulthood.

So, fine, it is a source problem — but why? What is the principal driver behind provide decreasing or need raising? I think we have been confronted with a kind of double whammy.

Even the significant DRAM providers shifted focus from DDR4 manufacturing as a result of tight margins, investing everywhere, whilst expansion in the conventional desktop industry over preceding years has been slow and no one needed to pay a premium to get DDR4 products, causing a reduction of attention from producers who could not satisfy their intended targets and yields.

With the limited need in late 2014 using Intel’s Haswell-E and Haswell-EP scope which lasted in 2015 with Skylake and again 2016 with Broadwell-E, the restricted supply was not a problem. But in 2017 we found that a quick shift in market demand toward background computing, not only Intel but now additionally AMD were sending processors encouraging DDR4 memory.

Maybe an even larger factor, the smartphone business has increased need of not only DRAM, however, NAND too. It is worth noting that it is another sort of DDR4 memory that’s made for the cellular market (Low Powered DDR4 or LP DDR4), and producers like Samsung earn more profit promoting LPDDR4 memory from premium tablets.

From mid-2017, pricing of memory modules jumped significantly and sadly it does not seem like producers will soon be ramping up manufacturing any time soon.

Based on market research company DRAMeXchange, the 3 big DDR4 providers (Samsung, SK Hynix, and Micron) slowed their ability expansions and technology migrations to keep costs in 2018 in the very same levels observed in the second half of this past year, which is associated with their own interest in sustaining solid profit margins.

The building of new fabs is still underway to assist the strained provide but they will not be prepared for mass production until 2019 at the earliest. It is called by Gartner which DDR4 pricing will wreck in 2019 and background would suggest that this is very likely to happen as that is the cycle we go through every couple of years using memory pricing.

China has the capability to alter things here using its competitive strategy to the semiconductor marketplace, which might lead to pricing to become much more unpredictable. Chinese memory can flood markets globally causing pricing to plummet. At the moment there’s a high number of Chinese fabs being constructed and it’s anticipated that the nation will take the second location for investment in semiconductors this season since it equips the numerous new fabs that started construction in 2016 and 2017.

It has been noted that China’s National Development and Reform Commission is exploring the possibility of DRAM price-fixing involving the significant industry players, which has been triggered by the purchase price surge we have been speaking about. If found guilty, it is difficult to predict exactly what the consequences could or might be, so we are going to have to see how that narrative plays out. It might seem like they’ve quite a lot of energy here, as SK Hynix and Samsung both possess quite a few centers in China.

Therefore, in case you’ve got a choice: hold off creating your new PC until afterward in 2018 (or more) or just accept the strike memory pricing. PC players will desire 16GB nowadays and these kits price at least $170, with superior memory priced nearer to $200. Granted the identical kit could have cost approximately $75 at the fantastic old times, but try to not dwell on this.

Inflated DDR4 memory pricing is simply one of the issues you may expect to face when wanting to update or construct a PC in 2018, and also within the following portion of this series, we are going to discuss what is happening with GPU pricing and what we could expect later this season.

Articles Source: https://www.techspot.com/article/1561-build-a-pc-bad-idea-ddr4-memory/

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Going Green by Using Electric-Fueled Vehicles

Car owners in the united states are confronted with the choice of continuing their status quo of purchasing cars that depend on the import of expensive oil from different nations or of investing in a much better environmental future by buying the newer technological miracles of hybrid or electric vehicles.

Electric-Fueled Vehicles

The option isn’t necessarily a simple one; nonetheless, there are a number of benefits of selecting the latter choice of an eco friendly vehicle. Where owners formerly paid $1 for a gallon of gasoline, they’re now paying at the area of $4.50 per gallon with indicators being that the cost is on the increase even more so. Eco-friendly cars rely on electrical batteries, not overseas oil to operate. The savings are important.That is actually another incentive to employing a hybridvehicle, plug in, or all electrical automobile. By doing this, owners assist to decrease American dependence on imported oil. The huge majority of the imported merchandise is used by passenger automobiles. Additionally, many get much better gas mileage than the normal car.

VIDEO: Are Electric Cars Really Green?

Connected to other fuel is just another eco friendly cars benefits, that being as time goes, you will find far more choices for where to gasoline up, and to speak. Hybrid vehicles may get gas in gas stations or even other fueling sites, while plug in cars may also have gas at a standard gas station or charge up at home or even a public charging channel. Electric cars may also recharge at home or even a public channel. Americans love versatility, and green cars supply that.The key environmental plus to using an eco friendly automobile is that by doing this you will find fewer emissions discharged into the air. As most men and women use electricity instead of gas because of their plug automobiles, there will also be lower emissions compared to their counterparts forcing regular vehicles. Hybrids may fluctuate, but they, also, generally release significantly less than ordinary gas automobiles.

Therefore, the advantages of utilizing eco friendly automobiles link directly to the person’s and nation’s pocketbook. The cost of gas is rising steadily, placing a strain on the federal market. Purchasing an alternate car means lower expensive imports, less household expense, and a better atmosphere.

Article Source: http://gengreen.org/going-electric-means-going-green-in-savings/

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Ethanol Facts

Ethanol Facts

Here are some interesting facts about Ethanol, which you might not have known:

  • For every barrel of ethanol produced, 1.2 barrels of petroleum are displaced.
  • To test a car powered by ethanol, you will need a very good automotive multimeter. This is because you need to test the voltage generated by the engine as well as the battery.
  • E-10 Unleaded (10% ethanol/90% ordinary unleaded gasoline) is approved for use by every major automaker in the world.
  • A typical 40 million gallon ethanol plant creates 32 full-time jobs and generates an additional $1.2 million in tax revenue for a community
  • Studies are being done to determine how wheat straw and sugar cane can be used to produce ethanol.
  • The U.S. is the world’s top ethanol producer, and Brazil is the world’s top ethanol exporter.
  • According to the Renewable Fuel Association, there are 106 ethanol plants already in operation in the U.S., an additional 48 plants are under construction, and seven are undergoing expansion.
  • Ethanol is a cost-effective octane-enhancer that typically adds two to three octane numbers when blended with ordinary gasoline.
  • The use of ethanol-blended gasoline helps reduce tropospheric ozone levels.
  • Ethanol helps reduce PM (particulate matter – small pieces of air pollution that penetrate deeply into human lungs) emissions by more than 25%.
  • If 5% of U.S. vehicles were powered by hybrids operating on E85 ethanol, oil imports could be reduced by about 140 million barrels a year.
  • Did you know that most of the batteries in vehicles are a type of lithium ion. This is the only “fuel” that outperforms you an ethanol vehicle. If you are not going to go with a  powerful ethanol car then we definitely recommend an electric vehicle like the Tesla Model S or 3, or even the Roadster. They use the same batteries as that can be found in the very best cordless screwdrivers!

Hope you found these facts interesting, check in soon for more!

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Why You Should Buy An Electric Bike?

Many people opt for bicycles because they help one to get the physical exercise and also using a bicycle is much for environmental friendly because, unlike the modern methods of transportation, they don’t give off harmful wastes into the environment. There are two popular types of bicycles available in the market. One is the regular, mechanical bicycle and another one is electric bicycle. There are various advantages of using an electric bike and you will get various models and brands in the market for an electric bike that you can easily check out. You can also view electric bike reviews here. To help you out, this article will take a look at why you should buy an electric bike.

Reasons To Opt For An Electric Bike:

  • Electric bikes are considered to be more environmentally friendly than most of the modern day transportation such as: car, bus, etc. This is because; electric bike will not give out any harmful emissions, unlike the modern transportations, which will contribute to the global warming. There is no petrol or diesel required because this bike runs completely with the help of electricity. The harmful emission from petrol and diesel run transportations actually contribute to the global warming, which is currently a hot topic of debate and countries are looking at various ways to contribute less to the global warming, by cutting down the harmful emissions in various possible ways.
  • Electric bikes are generally more sustainable than the most modern transportations. All you will need to do is to buy the electricity from the green energy supplier. As there is no consumption of fossil fuel, it actually helps to contribute to the environment.

In other words, if you are looking to help your environment, you should definitely opt for an electric bike. The electric bike produces no such emission, which can harm the environment. Also, an electric bike will produce less than 10% energy that is spent in powering your regular car. This means that, not only it doesn’t produce any harmful emissions; it will also produce less energy compared to the modern transportation, such as car. In fact, most people are turning towards using electric bikes because of other advantages as well, such as it helps to save time as one can get to their destination faster.

Did you know that an average electric bike is 13 times more efficient than a car and 18 times more efficient than your regular SUV’s and they are also 6 times more efficient than the rail transit? With the pollution problem becoming an alarming issue, you can easily contribute to the environment by opting for an electric bike.

The features of the electric bike will vary from one bike to another, however, no matter which brand or model the electric bike is of, they will definitely help to bring a positive change to our environment as they don’t create any pollution and they are more efficient than the regular and modern transportation.

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Ethanol – Economy and Energy

Ethanol’s impact on an economy

Ethanol creates jobs, increases farm income, reduces farm program payments, and decreases the amount of energy we import. Local people are employed by ethanol plants, local crops are purchased to make the ethanol, and local tax bases are significantly expanded. An ethanol plant of average size employs about 40 people with well-paying, high-skill jobs. Local providers of goods and services for the plant also provide spin-off jobs. The combination of reduced farm program payments and increased tax revenues adds at least $1.30 (this figure even takes into consideration the ethanol incentive program) to the U.S. Treasury for every gallon of ethanol produced.

Ethanol is an American-made fuel, and though it is not the ultimate answer to our nation’s energy needs, it certainly helps our country to be more energy independent. U.S. ethanol production provides for our economy more than 4 billion gallons of fuel that is produced domestically from renewable resources and does not need to be imported.

Energy Balance of Ethanol

Ethanol yields more energy than it takes to produce it, which means it has a positive energy balance. Not only is ethanol an efficient fuel, but it is made through an efficient process; it requires less than 35,000 BTUs of energy to turn corn into ethanol, while the ethanol offers at least 77,000 BTUs of energy. Studies show that ethanol has a positive net energy balance. The most recent study, conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, shows that ethanol provides an average net energy gain of at least 77%.

 

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Ethanol production and effects on the environment

Effects on Environment

Ethanol-blended fuels help reduce carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions. The Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory reports that ethanol-blended fuels reduced carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions in 2005 by 7.8 million tons. This, in effect, is similar to removing the annual greenhouse gas emissions of more than one million automobiles. Furthermore, Ethanol is an oxygenate (an oxygen substance added to fuels), and that oxygen helps the fuel burn more cleanly and more completely. Cleaner fuel means cleaner air.

Ethanol plants today are built with and utilize the best emission-control technology available. Thermal oxidizers (TO’s) control the vast majority of emissions and odors that might come out of a plant. The U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) classifies most ethanol plants as “minor” emissions sources since they emit less than 100 tons of pollutants per year; the average-sized power plant, in contrast, may emit more than 20,000 tons per year. Most cars emit about six tons of pollutants in a year, which means that the emissions from an ethanol plant are probably less than the emission from vehicles in an average neighborhood.

Ethanol Production

Plants that produce ethanol, corn oil, and corn sweeteners also produce by-products in large quantities, and these by-products are employed successfully by beef producers as a more affordable feed alternative for cattle.

Wet Milling Process

The wet milling process is a complex one, producing a variety of products and by-products. Simply put, corn is steeped for 30-40 hours to begin the process of breaking the kernel down into its components. The germ is separated for the extraction of corn oil. The bran is then screened, and the starch is separated from the gluten. The steepwater is condensed to the consistency of molasses and mixed with corn bran to produce corn gluten feed.

Wet Milling Co-Products

CORN GLUTEN FEEDCorn gluten feed is the highest volume co-product of the wet corn milling industry and is a popular feedlot cattle protein and energy source because it is an intermediate protein product that is rich in highly-digestible fiber. Dry corn gluten feed is often pelleted and marketed to domestic and European dairy industry. Corn gluten feed actually contains no gluten, but a mixture of corn bran and condensed steepwater solubles; it may also contain corn germ meal, as well as other co-product streams from the plant. Corn gluten feed can vary in composition due to the ration of condensed distillers solubles to corn bran. This will vary from plant to plant, depending on the markets available. Corn gluten feed that is higher in bran will be lower in protein, phosphorous, and sulfur.

CORN GLUTEN MEALCorn gluten meal is golden-yellow and is mainly gluten, the high protein portion of the corn kernel. Corn gluten meal is used primarily in the swine and poultry industries and is high in xanthophyl, a yellow pigment. Corn gluten meal is a high bypass protein source. Although expensive, it may be useful in beef diets that require bypass protein, such as those for lightweight calves.

CONDENSED STEEPWATER SOLUBLESCondensed steepwater solubles are an excellent source of soluble protein for liquid beef supplements. Most condensed steepwater solubles are used in corn gluten feed, but because condensed steepwater solubles have the consistency of molasses, they can also be used in liquid supplements. Condensed steepwater solubles are about 35% protein and can be extremely high in phosphorous and sulfur. In 1999, the wet corn milling industry used 1.4 billion bushels of corn (14.8% of the U.S. supply). Wet milling yields 31.5 pounds of starch with corn being processed into 33 pounds of sweetener or 2.5 gallons of ethanol. Also, 13.5 pounds of gluten feed, 2.5 pounds of gluten meal, and 1.6 pounds of corn oil are produced. In 2000, 10.6 billion pounds of corn gluten feed and corn germ meal were produced.

Dry Milling Process

Corn is nearly two-thirds starch, the primary substrate for alcohol fermentation, so the nutrients in the remaining one-third of the corn kernel are concentrated into distillers feeds. The process begins by grinding the grain; starch must be converted to sugar by enzymes before the yeast can ferment the sugar to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. The fermentation process takes 40-50 hours. The ethanol is collected and refined, and a centrifuge separates the distillers grains from the solubles, which can then be condensed to about 30% dry matter (condensed distillers solubles). These wet co-products can then be used locally for livestock feed or the produce distillers dried grains, or distillers dried grains with solubles. The dried grains can be transported longer distances, but some feeding value may be lost, and drying is expensive.

Dry Milling Co-Products

DISTILLERS GRAINS

Wet distillers grains and distillers grains with solubles contain the remaining nutrients after the corn starch is fermented to alcohol, which means that the original nutrients in the corn are concentrated approximately three times. Wet distillers grains are higher in both protein and energy than corn gluten feed (gluten and oil remain in distillers grains). When distillers grains are dried, however, they do lose some energy value when compared to wet products. Like corn gluten meal, dried distillers grains are a good bypass protein source for cattle.

CONDENSED DISTILLERS SOLUBLES

Distillers solubles can be added to the distillers grains, or condensed and used as a liquid cattle feed supplement. Condensed distillers solubles appear to be slightly higher in energy and similar in protein to wet distillers grains when adjusted for moisture. The protein level is similar to distillers grains (approximately 30%). Because condensed distillers solubles are 70% moisture, upper Midwestern feeders should use heated or underground tanks to prevent freezing.

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